Germany to compensate people who fled from country as children to escape Nazis
Children fled to Britain, where they were then sent to schools, farms and hostels. (Bundesarchiv: Bild 183-S69279)
Berlin has agreed to one-time payments for survivors, primarily Jews, who were evacuated from Nazi Germany as children, many of whom never saw their parents again.
- Those who fled the Third Reich as children will be paid $3,941
- About 1,000 of the survivors are thought to be alive today
- Germany will pay $552 billion total in compensation to survivors in 2019
The New York-based Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany said the government had agreed to payments of 2,500 euros ($3,941) to those still alive from among the 10,000 people who fled on the so-called “Kindertransport”.
This year is the 80th anniversary of the beginning of the transport of children to Britain from Nazi Germany and elsewhere in Europe.
About 1,000 survivors are thought to be alive today, with about half living in Britain, and the payment is seen as a “symbolic recognition of their suffering”, claims conference negotiator Greg Schneider said.
“In almost all the cases the parents who remained were killed in concentration camps in the Holocaust and they have tremendous psychological issues,” Mr Schneider said.
Britain welcomed 10,000 children, including 7,500 Jews
A 1939 visa issued to a Jewish woman who accompanied Jewish children from Danzig to Britain. (Wikimedia Commons: Huddyhuddy)
Following the Nazis’ anti-Jewish pogrom in November 1938 known as Kristallnacht, or the Night of Broken Glass, the British government agreed to take in an unspecified number of Jewish children as refugees from Nazi Germany or territories it had annexed.
Jewish groups inside Nazi Germany planned the transports, and the first arrived in Harwich on December 2, 1938, according to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
The last transport from Germany left on September 1, 1939 — the day World War II broke out with the Nazi invasion of Poland — and the final transport from continental Europe left the Netherlands on May 14, 1940, the same day Dutch forces surrendered to the Reich.
In all, about 10,000 children from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland were taken to Britain, about 7,500 of whom were Jewish, according to the museum.
About half were placed with foster families, while the others stayed in hostels, schools or farms.
In addition to those who remained in Britain, many resettled in the US, Israel, Canada, Australia and elsewhere, Mr Schneider said.
Germany has paid more than $100 billion in compensation
Germany continues to grant money to agencies which care for Holocaust survivors. (US Army Corps)
Today, survivors are at least in their 80s and most continue to look back on their escape as the defining moment of their lives as they were put alone onto trains into the unknown, saying goodbye to parents and siblings often for the last time, Mr Schneider said.
“This money is acknowledgement that this was a traumatic, horrible thing that happened to them,” he said.
Some survivors already received small payments in the 1950s but that will not bar them from receiving the new benefit, the Claims Conference said.
The Claims Conference carries out continuous negotiations with Germany to expand the number of people eligible for compensation.
Since 1952, the German government has paid more than $127 billion to individuals for suffering and losses resulting from persecution by the Nazis.
In 2019, the Claims Conference will distribute approximately $552 billion in direct compensation to more than 60,000 survivors in 83 countries, the organisation says.
In addition, it will provide some $867 billion in grants to social service agencies that provide home care, food, medicine and other services for Holocaust survivors.